Journal Articles

Educause Review

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Educause Review is a higher education online journal for IT applications in higher education. In this article, "Using Mobile Learning Resources in foreign Language Instruction", is data results showing teachers and students' interest in integrating technology in the language classroom environment. Also, there are useful digital resources suggested near the bottom of the article. For all grade levels.

Agricultural Education Magazine

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The National Association of Agricultural Educator's provides a journal detailing current research and news to inform and connect ag educators across the nation. Non-subscribed users may download past issues for free. For grades 6 and up.

Technology integration coursework and finding meaning in pre-service teachers' reflective practice

University of Idaho
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This study seeks to inform teacher preparation programs regarding technology integration by understanding 1) relationships between tasks with specific technologies and pre-service teachers’ critical thinking about technology integration and 2) relationships between how pre-service teachers are critically thinking about technology integration and their self-assessed competence in technology integration. A mixed methods research design was employed, which gathered survey and performance task reflection data from pre-service teachers in four sections of a technology for teaching course. Data were analyzed using a process that categorized pre-service teacher thinking about technology integration in accordance with the RAT (Replacement, Amplification, and Transformation) model of technology integration. Results revealed that there was a significant overall effect of the selection of performance task upon whether it was applied in a transformative manner, but that no such overall effect existed for amplification and replacement. Examining the data descriptively, pre-service teachers generally exhibited a high level of amplification in how they applied technology in their thinking and rarely referred to technology use that did not show some clear benefits in their classrooms (i.e. replacement). Results also showed that there was no relationship between how students were thinking about technology integration and their self-assessment of technology integration competence. These results suggest that the types of performance tasks we used only had an impact on how pre-service teachers applied their understanding of technology integration in their educational contexts for transformative use cases. We also conclude that pre-service teachers’ self-assessments of competence are likely based upon technical fluency rather than thoughtful application toward classroom outcomes.

Kimmons, R., Miller, B., Amador, J., Desjardins, C., & Hall, C. (accepted). Technology integration coursework and finding meaning in pre-service teachers' reflective practice. Educational Technology Research and Development.

Expansive openness in teacher practice

University of Idaho
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This mixed methods study seeks to identify and explore teacher perspectives on the potentials and barriers to openness in K-12 educational practice. Pulling upon previous work focused on open educational resources (OER), open source software, open scholarship, open publishing, and open courses, this study operates on an expansive or inclusive understanding of openness that emphasizes adoption, adaptation, and sharing of educational resources. Operating on this expansive definition, the researcher first conducted a series of summer institutes with practicing K-12 teachers to introduce them to the concept and to give them hands-on experience with openness in action. Participants were then recruited from institute attendees (n = 101), qualitative data was collected during incubator sessions, modeled as large focus groups, during the institutes, and an evaluation survey was completed immediately following the institutes. Qualitative data was analyzed phenomenologically to ascertain participants’ experiences and perspectives on the potentials and barriers of expansive openness in practice. Qualitative results were also utilized to construct a follow-up survey, which was distributed to participants six months after the institute. Results revealed that participants uniformly believed that openness offers pedagogical, economic, and professional potentials for practice, but that major barriers to diffusion exist at the macro and local levels.

Kimmons, R. (accepted). Expansive openness in teacher practice. Teachers College Record.

Open online system adoption in K-12 as a democratizing factor

University of Idaho
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This study seeks to understand how district size and wealth factors influence K-12 adoption of open source online systems. Most schools now utilize online systems (e.g., CMS, LMS, SIS) for a number of purposes, and it is anticipated that no cost and open source systems could be of great value for democratizing access to information system resources and improving the plight of struggling schools. By using web extraction techniques to collect all public school website data for K-12 districts in the target state (n=133) and merging this data set with public financial records, researchers conducted a series of ANCOVA and MANOVA tests to determine main effects. Results indicate that larger, wealthier districts are more likely to adopt open source systems than smaller, poorer districts. These results call into question the democratizing impact of open source systems for struggling schools and suggest the importance of literacy development for supporting open adoption.

Kimmons, R. (accepted). Open online system adoption in K-12 as a democratizing factor. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning.

K-12 web system adoption and academic achievement ratings

University of Idaho
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This study seeks to understand the relationship between K-12 online system adoption (e.g., Blackboard, Edmodo, WordPress) and school-level academic achievement ratings. Utilizing a novel approach to data collection via website data extraction and indexing of all school websites in a target state in the United States (n = 732) and merging these data with publicly available data on school academic achievement ratings, this study provides generalizable results of online system adoption on academic achievement ratings for the 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 school years. Univariate general linear modelling is used to determine significant relationships between categories of systems (e.g., any, education-specific, generic, cost, no-cost, proprietary, open-source) or specific systems and school academic ratings for each year. The results indicate some general positive effects, but effect sizes remain small and account for 2% or less of variance in ratings. Implications of this study suggest that online system adoption does not impact student academic achievement at a sufficient level to justify adoption that is not meaningfully coupled with other essential factors of school development (e.g., professional development, curricular development), and we propose that decision-makers should be wary of large-scale, technocentric attempts to improve schools that are not grounded in generalizable research findings.

Kimmons, R. (2015). K-12 web system adoption and academic achievement ratings. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.

Teacher professionalization in the age of social networking sites

University of Idaho
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As teacher education students become professionals, they face a number of tensions related to identity, social participation, and work-life balance, which may be further complicated by social networking sites (SNS). This qualitative study sought to articulate tensions that arose between professionalization influences and teacher education student participants' SNS participation. Findings suggest that some expectations of professionalization in SNS cut deeply into participants' self-concept and that tensions arose surrounding unclear expectations of professionalization and fears related to political and religious expression. The study's implications are: teachers need to (a) consider how participation in SNS may impact their identity, (b) understand how moral turpitude is defined in their communities and how their behavior aligns with these standards, and (c) carefully explore how they can maintain meaningful social connections in online spaces as they pass through new phases of life and seek to become professionals.

Kimmons, R., & Veletsianos, G. (2015). Teacher professionalization in the age of social networking sites. Learning, Media and Technology.

Examining TPACK's theoretical future

University of Idaho
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TPACK (Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge) has quickly become popular amongst researchers and practitioners as a framework for understanding necessary teacher knowledge for supporting effective technology integration. Utilization of TPACK, however, has generally been approached in a manner that is non-critical and that does not inform on-going development of the framework. This theoretical paper utilizes five characteristics of “good” scientific theory (accuracy, consistency, scope, simplicity, and fruitfulness) taken from the work of Thomas Kuhn as points of departure for exploring affordances and limitations of TPACK for researchers and teachers. Based upon this examination, four suggestions are provided to support future research into technology integration that seek to help address limitations in the TPACK framework and to inform its appropriate and thoughtful use in research and practice.

Kimmons, R. (2015). Examining TPACK's theoretical future. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 23(1), 53-77.

Developing open education literacies with practicing K-12 teachers

University of Idaho
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This study seeks to understand how to use formal learning activities to effectively support the development of open education literacies among K-12 teachers. Considering pre- and post-surveys from K-12 teachers (n = 80) who participated in a three-day institute, this study considers whether participants entered institutes with false confidence or misconceptions related to open education, whether participant knowledge grew as a result of participation, whether takeaways matched expectations, whether time teaching (i.e., teacher veterancy) impacted participant data, and what specific evaluation items influenced participants’ overall evaluations of the institutes. Results indicated that 1) participants entered the institutes with misconceptions or false confidence in several areas (e.g., copyright, fair use), 2) the institute was effective for helping to improve participant knowledge in open education areas, 3) takeaways did not match expectations, 4) time teaching did not influence participant evaluations, expectations, or knowledge, and 5) three specific evaluation items significantly influenced overall evaluations of the institute: learning activities, instructor, and website / online resources. Researchers conclude that this type of approach is valuable for improving K-12 teacher open education literacies, that various misconceptions must be overcome to support large-scale development of open education literacies in K-12, and that open education advocates should recognize that all teachers, irrespective of time teaching, want to innovate, utilize open resources, and share in an open manner.

Kimmons, R. (2014). Developing open education literacies with practicing K-12 teachers. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(6).

The fragmented educator 2.0: Social networking sites, acceptable identity fragments, and the identity constellation

University of Idaho
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Social networking sites (SNS) have been used to support educational and professional endeavors. However, little research has been done to understand the relationship between educator identity and participation in SNS or to examine the implications that institutional regulation of such media may have upon educator identity. Using grounded theory, in this study we developed a framework for understanding how a group of teacher education students viewed their developing identities within social networking sites as they began the life transition to becoming educators. The theory that emerged from this study proposes that educator identity consists of a constellation of interconnected acceptable identity fragments, which are each intentional, authentic, transitional, necessarily incomplete, and socially-constructed and -responsive. This view of educator identity contrasts sharply with previous views of identity by highlighting the complicated, negotiated, and recursive relationship that exists between educator participation in SNS and educator identity. Additionally, this perspective suggests that educator participation in SNS is neither fully representative of authentic identity (as prominent SNS models imply) nor dramaturgical. These findings yield important implications for educators, researchers, educational institutions, lawmakers, and SNS developers alike, because they lead to a more sophisticated understanding of identity and online participation that is essential for developing mechanisms to support moral and legal judgments, professionalism, and social interactions relative to SNS.

Kimmons, R., & Veletsianos, G. (2014). The fragmented educator 2.0: Social networking sites, acceptable identity fragments, and the identity constellation. Computers & Education, 72, 292-301.

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